In his book, In Over Our Heads (1994), Kegan matches the complexity of society’s expectations in traditional/pre-modern culture to self-governing (stage 3) and the expectations of modern society to self-authoring (stage 4).
it was not until 2010, when two young Dutch cultural theorists studying in London, Timotheus Vermeulen and Robin van den Akker, started exploring metamodernism that it gained some momentum in cultural studies, and then mainly regarding the arts. Vermeulen and van den Akker are specifically not suggesting a metamodern program or coherent philosophy, what they try to do is to pin down a structure of feeling, a conglomerate of sensibilities and urges shared by many in their generation: their epistemology is ironic/postmodern, reality is serious and modern; how does one live on both islands simultaneously?
Among academics, metamodernism is far from a household name yet.
The codes of indigenous culture are what we share in our immediate family and among close friends: meals, personal conversations, spiritual development, births, deaths, tight emotional connections, hygge, and intimacy.
Modernity: In the book Immunity to Change (2007), Robert Kegan and his colleague, Lisa Laskow Lahey, refer to two studies that show adult ego-development in the United States among corporate management in 1987 and 1994. The studies are small (497 and 342 persons, respectively) and may not be representative of the overall population.
Most Western countries have statistics or estimates telling what percentage of refugees and immigrants are Christian or Muslim, other statistics show how religious, say, Muslims are in various countries, some show level of education. The World Value Survey maps traditional and modern values in countries around the globe.
Muslims are debated a lot but there is barely any focus on whether people arrive with a pre-modern or modern worldview; maybe it is the most modern minded people who migrate, maybe not.
More Quotes & Sources
Instead of providing sources in the book, you can find quotes from the book and links to my sources by clicking on the respective chapters below.